|Brief Historical Survey
of Indian Music
This period of the history of Indian music rather begins with the inception of music as an art. There are various theories about the origin of music. According to the ancient Hindu belief God Brahma, the creator of the universe is the father of Indian Music. Vedas were created by the great Rishies (sages). The practice of chanting of Vedic hymns in a highly "codified manner became an integral part of many types of ritual ceremonies. This practice is known as Samagana.
Music in India was used predominantly for religious purposes in this period. The hymns of Samaveda were recited at the time of Yajnas (the Vedic worship). Musical instruments such as Veena (Lute), Pushkar (a kind of drum), Vanshee or Bansuree (a flute) and Dundubhi (a sort of large kettle drum) were generally used.
In this period there was a great development started taking place in Indian music. Different terms of music and the Naatya Shastra of Bharatmuni were written. Moorchhana System
Maargee and Desi Sangeet
There was remarkable progress in Indian Music during the medieval period. But the spiritual piety and fervor, which are the very soul of Indian music, suffered a great
Setback. Over the centuries it turned only to be a means of sensual pleasure in the
Palaces and harems. There was immense progress in all the three branches of music. , Vocal "" Instrumental
And Dance Music
Scholars and artistes carried the experiments in every field of music. The Raga-Ragini System got firmer hold in the realm of music.
New ragas were invented, various musical instruments were manufactured.
Time theory of presentation of ragas was developed.
In the modern time two great Indian's have done a Yeoman's service to Indian Music by reconstructing its damaged framework. Pandit Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande and Pandit Vishnu Digambar Paluskar are the two doyens of Indian Music, who made extensive tours of the country, met different scholars of music, maestros, Rajahs and
Nawabs and collected valuable material on both, practical and theoretical branches of
Music. They introduced music in the educational institutions.
The music systems and styles in this country have been undergoing changes from Jatigayan to Prabandha gayan and then to Dhruapad gayan. In the modern times in the field of entire north Indian classical music, Khayal style of music is in vogue. In
Addition to Khayal semi classical styles, namely Thumari, Tappa, Bhajan, Qawwali and Gazal are very popular in the present era.
In the instrumental music Veena, Sitar, Sarod, Santur (Santoor), Violin, Shahnaaee, Harmonium, Tabla, Mridanga, Dholak etc. have formed great public appeal. Tanpura serves giving the base notes in the vocal and instrumental music.
All the three branches of music, i.e. vocal, instrumental and dancing have made great advances in the modern time. Many a teacher and a great maestro have enriched the cultural heritage of India in the modem period. Institutions to impart training in Indian music have come up in some countries. This is a good. Sign of developing interest of this great performing art of India.
Fundamentals of Indian Classical Music